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Occupational Radiation Protection
Occupational Radiation Protection
1 INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE, Occupational Radiation Protection, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.1, IAEA, Vienna (1999).
2 INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE, Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to Intakes of Radionuclides, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.2, IAEA, Vienna (1999).
3 INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE, Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to External Sources of Radiation, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.3, IAEA, Vienna (1999).
4 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE, Occupational Radiation Protection in the Mining and Processing of Raw Materials, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.6, IAEA, Vienna (2004).
5INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, The Management System for Technical Services in Radiation Safety, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-3.2, IAEA, Vienna (2008).
6Since States have different legal structures, the term ‘government’ here is to be understood in a broad sense and, accordingly, is interchangeable with the term ‘State’.
7 Potential alpha energy exposure is not a type of potential exposure.
8 Emergency workers who are not designated as such at the preparedness stage are required to be registered and integrated into the emergency response operations in line with GSR Part 7 .
9 Helpers in an emergency should not be allowed to take actions that might result in their exceeding an effective dose of 50 mSv.
10 Decorporation means the biological processes, facilitated by a chemical or biological agent, by which incorporated radionuclides are removed from the human body.
11 More than one authority may be involved, in which case the term ‘authority’ refers to the system of authorities.
12 A radon prone area is one in which, because of the characteristics of the ground or of the building design and usage, the percentage of buildings with 222Rn concentrations above a certain predetermined level (most probably the applicable reference level) exceeds a threshold percentage level established by the regulatory body or other relevant authority.
13 The average annual effective dose to populations from cosmic radiation is estimated to be in the range of 0.3–2 mSv, with a population weighted average of about 0.38 mSv .
14 Notification of an employer of a pregnancy or a suspected pregnancy or of breastfeeding cannot be made a requirement on a female worker in IAEA safety standards. However, it is necessary that all female workers understand the importance of making such notifications so that their working conditions may be modified accordingly.
15 An ore pass is a vertical or inclined chute created in underground mining operations for the downward transfer of ore.
16 For example, about 10 mm of polymethylmethacrylate is sufficient to absorb beta radiation from 90Y.
17In discussing the measurement and effects of beta radiation, ‘thicknesses’ of material are often expressed in units of milligrams per square centimetre to allow direct comparisons between materials of different densities. For tissue equivalent material, the density is 1 g/cm2, so 7 mg/cm2 corresponds to a depth of 0.07 mm.
18 The Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology comprises representatives of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the IEC, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, and the International Organization of Legal Metrology.
19The AMAD is the aerodynamic diameter at which 50% of the airborne activity in a specified aerosol is associated with particles smaller than the AMAD, and thus the remaining 50% of the activity is associated with particles larger than the AMAD. In internal dosimetry, the AMAD is used for the simplification as a single ‘average’ value of aerodynamic diameter that is representative of the aerosol as a whole. It is used for particle sizes typically greater than 0.5 μm, for which deposition depends principally on inertial impaction and sedimentation.
20In industrial activities involving naturally occurring radioactive material, mass concentrations of dust in air are often monitored for purposes of industrial hygiene.
21 Documents may include: policies; procedures; instructions; specifications and drawings (or representations in other media); training materials; and any other texts that describe processes, specify requirements or establish product specifications.
22 Senior management means the person, or group of people, who directs, controls and assesses an organization at the highest level. Many different terms are used, including, for example, chief executive officer, director general, executive team, plant manager, top manager, chief regulator, managing director and laboratory director.
23 An interested party in this context is a person, group, company or other entity with an interest in the performance of an organization, business or system. Those who can influence events may effectively become interested parties — in the sense that their views need to be considered. Interested parties have typically included the following: customers; owners and operators; employees; suppliers; partners; trade unions; regulated industries and professionals; scientific bodies; governmental agencies and regulators (local, regional and national) whose responsibilities cover nuclear energy; the media; the public (individuals, community groups and interest groups); and other States, especially neighbouring States that have entered into agreements providing for an exchange of information concerning possible transboundary impacts, or States involved in the export or import of certain technologies or materials.
24In some States, the term ‘assay’ is used instead of test.
25For a given wavelength of light, the optical density of a material (also referred to as the absorbance A) is the ratio of the intensity I of light passing through a material to the intensity I0 of light falling on the material, expressed logarithmically according to the expression A = −lg (I/I0).
Tags applicable to this publication
- Publication type:General Safety Guide
- Publication number: GSG-7
- Publication year: 2018