To search for a specific term in the publication, please load the entire page first and then use Ctrl F to ensure complete search results.
Fundamental Safety Principles
Fundamental Safety Principles
1‘Radiation’ as used here means ionizing radiation.
2The term ‘radiation risks’ is used here in a general sense to refer to:
- Detrimental health effects of radiation exposure (including the likelihood of such effects occurring).
- Any other safety related risks (including those to ecosystems in the environment) that might arise as a direct consequence of:
- Exposure to radiation;
- The presence of radioactive material (including radioactive waste) or its release to the environment;
- A loss of control over a nuclear reactor core, nuclear chain reaction, radioactive source or any other source of radiation.
3The term ‘facilities and activities — existing and new — utilized for peaceful purposes’ is hereafter abbreviated for convenience to ‘facilities and activities’ as a general term encompassing any human activity that may cause people to be exposed to radiation risks arising from naturally occurring or artificial sources. ‘Facilities’ includes: nuclear facilities; irradiation installations; some mining and raw material processing facilities such as uranium mines; radioactive waste management facilities; and any other places where radioactive materials are produced, processed, used, handled, stored or disposed of — or where radiation generators are installed — on such a scale that consideration of protection and safety is required. ‘Activities’ includes: the production, use, import and export of radiation sources for industrial, research and medical purposes; the transport of radioactive material; the decommissioning of facilities; radioactive waste management activities such as the discharge of effluents; and some aspects of the remediation of sites affected by residues from past activities.
4‘Incidents’ includes initiating events, accident precursors, near misses, accidents and unauthorized acts (including malicious and non-malicious acts).
5For the purposes of this publication, the term ‘licensee’ is used; other forms of authorization such as registration may apply. Under some circumstances, the government or an employer may assume responsibility for the safety of facilities and activities.
6Not having an authorization would not exonerate the person or organization responsible for the facility or activity from the responsibility for safety.
7An ‘orphan source’ is a radioactive source that is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory control, or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or otherwise transferred without proper authorization.
8In particular, assumptions have to be made owing to uncertainties concerning the health effects of radiation exposure at low doses and low dose rates.
Tags applicable to this publication
- Publication type:Safety Fundamentals
- Publication number: SF-1
- Publication year: 2006