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GSR Part 3
Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards
GSR Part 3
Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards
1 AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION, OECD NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY, PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, International Basic for against and for the of , IAEA Series No. 115, IAEA, Vienna (1996).
2The term ‘’ in the context of these Standards means .
3Obligations expressed as ‘must’ statements in Section 1 are quoted from the Fundamental Principles .
4 AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION, OECD NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY, PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, International Basic for against and for the of , IAEA Series No. 115, IAEA, Vienna (1996).
5The term ‘’ is used in a general sense to refer to:— Detrimental (including the likelihood of such effects occurring).— Any other related risks (including those to the ) that might arise as a direct consequence of:
- to ;
- The presence of (including ) or its to the ;
- A loss of control over a nuclear reactor core, nuclear chain reaction, or any other of .
6The term ‘’ is a general term encompassing any human activity that may people to be exposed to arising from naturally occurring or artificial . The term ‘’ includes: ; ; some mining and raw material processing such as uranium mines; ; and any other places where radioactive material is produced, processed, used, handled, stored or disposed of — or where generators are installed — on such a scale that consideration of protection and safety is required. The term ‘activities’ includes: the production, use, import and export of radiation sources for industrial, research and medical purposes; the transport of ; the decommissioning of ; such as the discharge of effluents; and some aspects of the remediation of sites affected by residues from past .
7According to UNSCEAR , the worldwide average annual dose from due to naturally occurring , including , is 2.4 mSv. In any large population, about 65% would be expected to have of between 1 and 3 mSv. About 25% of the population would be expected to have of less than 1 mSv, and about 10% would be expected to have greater than 3 mSv.
8It is generally accepted, for example, that it is not feasible to control 40K in the body or cosmic at the surface of the Earth.
9‘ is optimized’ means that has been applied and the result of that process has been implemented.
10States have different legal structures, and, therefore, the term ‘government’ as used in the IAEA is to be understood in a broad sense, and is accordingly interchangeable here with the term ‘State’.
11 on the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for of are established in Ref. .
12‘Formal recognition’ means documented acknowledgement by the relevant authority that a person has the qualifications and expertise required for the responsibilities that he or she will bear in the conduct of the .
13Additional measures are taken for in the of . The IAEA issues guidance on in the of in the IAEA Nuclear Security Series of publications.
14The specifies which are to be included in the registers and inventories, with due consideration given to the associated .
15Requirements on the for are established in Ref. .
16For example, a sterilization gamma irradiation unit is a for the of preservation of . An X ray unit may be a for the of radiodiagnosis. A nuclear power plant is part of the practice of generating electricity by fission, and may be regarded as a single (e.g. with respect to ) or as a collection of (e.g. for purposes of occupational ). A complex or multiple installation situated at one location or may, as appropriate, be considered a single for the purposes of application of these Standards.
17A situation of due to in , , drinking water, agricultural fertilizer and soil amendments, construction materials and residual in the is treated as an regardless of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides concerned.
18With regard to material being in accordance with the IAEA Transport Regulations , the of these Standards for and are fulfilled by means of compliance with the of the IAEA Transport Regulations.
19Typical that are suitable for are those for which: (i) can largely be ensured by the design of the and equipment; (ii) the operating procedures are simple to follow; (iii) the training requirements for are minimal; and (iv) there is a history of few problems relating to in . is best suited to those for which do not vary significantly.
20Such provision may involve several governmental authorities not necessarily having direct responsibility for , such as ministries of health, justice, immigration and security.
21This provision for the of any type of includes for which alone is sufficient.
22Particular for the of are specified in paras 3.155–3.161.
23This is not intended to prohibit those that may involve the short term of commodities or products, for which there is no increase in in the commodity or product as made available.
24Such purposes for performing human imaging using include: assessment of fitness for employment (prior to employment or periodically during employment); assessment of physiological suitability for a career or a sport; assessment of athletes before a selection or transfer; determination of age for legal purposes; obtaining evidence for legal purposes; detection of drugs concealed within the body; immigration or emigration requirements; pre-insurance checks; and obtaining evidence for the purposes of a compensation claim.
25For , the relevant is on to , established and used by and to set the range of options in optimizing for the . For , the relevant is a related value established or approved by the government or the , with account taken of the from planned of all under control. The for each particular is intended, among other things, to ensure that the sum of doses from planned for all under control remains within the dose limit.
26 for the of are specified in paras 3.162–3.177.
27 do not apply to .
28 on for are established in Ref. .
29A generic is usually sufficient for types of with a high degree of uniformity in design. A specific is usually required in other cases; however, the specific need not include those aspects covered by a generic , if a generic has been conducted for the type of .
30For categories 1, 2 and 3 as defined in Schedule II, the manufacturer may consider placement near the , preferably on the shield or near the point of access to the , of the supplementary symbol specified in Ref. . The supplementary symbol is not placed on the external surfaces of , or or on building access doors.
31Such purposes for performing human imaging using include: assessment of fitness for employment (prior to employment or periodically during employment); assessment of physiological suitability for a career or a sport; assessment of athletes before a selection or transfer; determination of age for legal purposes; obtaining evidence for legal purposes; detection of drugs concealed within the body; immigration or emigration ; pre-insurance checks; and obtaining evidence for the purposes of a compensation claim.
32The of is regulated in accordance with the IAEA Transport Regulations .
33The distinction between types of in paras 3.100 and 3.101 for the purposes of has similarities to the distinction between category A and category B in European Union legislation .
34Records of are also referred to as ‘exposure records’ or ‘ records’.
35Notification of an of a suspected pregnancy or of breast-feeding cannot be made a on a female in these Standards. However, it is necessary that all female understand the importance of making such notifications so that their working conditions may be modified accordingly.
36The term ‘providers of ’ includes the designers, manufacturers, producers, constructors, installers, distributors, sellers, and importers and exporters of .
37 contributions from possible future authorized have to be anticipated in an assessment made on the basis of realistic assumptions.
38 for the predisposal are established in Ref.  and for the of are established in Ref. .
39 on human imaging using for purposes other than medical diagnosis, medical treatment or biomedical research (and, hence, not within the scope of ) are stated in paras 3.61–3.67.
40The selection of for is a complex process in which a number of factors have to be taken into account, such as the age of the individual and for a woman the possibility of her being pregnant.
41‘Specialized’ means specialized as acknowledged by the relevant professional body, or appropriate organization.
42‘The appropriate area’ means, in the first instance, diagnostic radiology, image guided interventional procedures, or therapy or nuclear medicine (diagnostic , therapeutic or both). The area of specialization is often likely to be narrower, however, in particular with regard to the . Examples are dental, chiropractic or podiatric specialists in the case of diagnostic radiology, and cardiologists, urologists or neurologists in the case of image guided interventional procedures.
43The diagnostic or therapeutic benefit that are expected to yield may not necessarily be to the person exposed. For , this is clearly the case, but for in biomedical research the benefit is expected to be for biomedical sciences and for future health care. Similarly, the benefit for might be, for example, the successful performance of a diagnostic procedure on a .
44The term ‘relatively high ’ is intended to apply in a given context. Clearly, doses from therapeutic are included in ‘relatively high doses’, as are image guided interventional procedures. In medical imaging, ‘relatively high doses’ would include doses from in computed tomography and in in nuclear medicine with higher doses.
45‘Independent verification’ ideally means verification by a different, independent using different dosimetry equipment. However, other options, such as verification by a second or verification using a second set of equipment, or even using a form of verification by postal thermoluminescence dosimetry, could be acceptable. In checking for compliance, the needs to be aware of the limitations on local resources.
46‘Other means of communication’ include explicitly asking female whether they are or might be pregnant or whether they are breast-feeding.
47Table A–1 in the Annex (p. 380) provides a set of for use in the strategy that are compatible with within a range of 20–100 mSv, and provides further details for specific actions in different time frames.
48The voluntary basis for actions to be taken by is usually covered in .
49In the case of , the types of situation that are included in the scope of will include in workplaces for which the is not required by or directly related to the work and for which annual average activity concentrations due to 222Rn might be expected not to exceed the established in accordance with para. 5.27.
50Such actions include such as the removal or reduction of the giving rise to the , as well as other longer term such as restriction of the use of materials, restriction of the consumption of foodstuffs and restriction of land use or of access to land or buildings.
51In that do not fall under the jurisdiction of the , another relevant authority such as a may have authority for implementing measures for
52The implementation of remedial actions (remediation) does not imply the elimination of all radioactivity or all traces of radioactive substances. The optimization process may lead to extensive remediation but not necessarily to the restoration of previous conditions.
53Buildings with high for members of the public include kindergartens, schools and hospitals.
54Guidance on the preparation of an action plan for is provided in Ref. , for example.
55On the assumption of an for 222Rn of 0.4 and an annual occupancy of 7000 h, the value of activity concentration due to 222Rn of 300 Bq/m3 corresponds to an annual of the order of 10 mSv.
56Examples of giving priority to reducing activity concentrations of 222Rn in those situations for which such action is likely to be most effective include (i) specifying the levels of activity concentrations of 222Rn in dwellings and other buildings with high at which can be considered optimized; (ii) identifying prone areas; (iii) identifying characteristics of buildings that are likely to give rise to elevated activity concentrations of 222Rn; and (iv) identifying and requiring preventive measures for in future buildings that can be introduced at relatively low cost.
57On the assumption of an for 222Rn of 0.4 and an annual occupancy of 2000 h, the value of activity concentration due to 222Rn of 1000 Bq/m3 corresponds to an annual of the order of 10 mSv.
58The values (activity concentrations) presented in Table I.1 have been calculated on the basis of involving a moderate amount of material: “The calculated values apply to involving small scale usage of where the quantities involved are at the most of the order of a tonne” (see Ref. ). The will need to establish the amounts for which the concentration values in Table I.1 may be applied, bearing in mind that for many radionuclides, in particular those for which there is no corresponding value given in Table I.2 (p. 124), a restriction on the amount is not meaningful.
59The set out in Table I.1 (p. 111) and the and set out in Table I.2 are subject to the following considerations: (a) they were derived using a conservative based on (i) the criteria of paras I.2 and I.11, respectively, and a series of limiting (bounding) for use and (see Refs [25, 26] in the case of Table I.1 and Ref.  in the case of Table I.2); (b) if there is more than one radionuclide, the derived or derived for the mixture is determined as specified in paras I.7 and I.14.
60Material containing at an activity concentration of less than 1 Bq/g for any radionuclide in the decay chain or the thorium decay chain and of less than 10 Bq/g for 40K is not subject to the in Section 3 for (para. 3.4(a)); hence, the concept of from the of these Standards does not apply for such material.
61For the purposes of material in , ‘’ means from the of the IAEA Transport Regulations .
62The set out in Table I.1 (p. 111) and the and set out in Table I.2 are subject to the following considerations: (a) they were derived using a conservative based on (i) the criteria of paras I.2 and I.11, respectively, and a series of limiting (bounding) for use and (see Refs [25, 26] in the case of Table I.1 and Ref.  in the case of Table I.2); (b) if there is more than one radionuclide, the derived or derived for the mixture is determined as specified in paras I.7 and I.14.
63These values of activity concentration may also be applied for the of materials arising from subject to the criteria given in para. I.11, pending establishment of radionuclide specific values for the given in Table I.3.
64 of construction materials incorporating radionuclides is addressed in Section 5 as an .
65For example, specific may be developed for metals, for rubble from buildings and for in landfill sites.
66The start of the averaging period shall be coincident with the first day of the relevant annual period after the date of entry into force of these Standards, with no retrospective averaging.
67The for the skin apply to the average dose over 1 cm2 of the most highly irradiated area of the skin. The dose to the skin also contributes to the , this contribution being the average dose to the entire skin multiplied by the for the skin.
68For example, in authorized, justified and planned operational conditions that lead to transitory increases in .
69Hp(10) is the where d = 10 mm.
Tags applicable to this publication
- Publication type:General Safety Requirements
- Publication number: GSR Part 3
- Publication year: 2014