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Radiation Safety for Consumer Products
Radiation Safety for Consumer Products
1Nowadays, watches and clocks with non-radioactive luminous dials are available for sale to the public. The coating material most commonly used is a phosphorescent pigment on the basis of strontium aluminate doped with traces of europium and dysprosium (SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy). In contrast to radioluminescent paints, this material needs to be activated through exposure to sunlight or artificial light for just a few minutes. Following activation, its luminosity gradually fades and reaches the threshold of visibility to the eye after several hours. Watches with phosphorescent paints are therefore not a direct replacement for watches with radioluminescent paints in certain specialist applications.
2Some consumer products provided directly to the public can also be used as components of other consumer products.
3A planned exposure situation is a situation of exposure that arises from the planned operation of a source or from a planned activity that results in an exposure from a source .
4Authorization is defined as “The granting by a regulatory body or other governmental body of written permission for a person or organization (the operator) to conduct specified activities” .
5As stated in para. 2.40 of GSR Part 3 : “The principal parties responsible for protection and safety are: (a) Registrants or licensees, or the person or organization responsible for facilities and activities for which notification only is required; (b) Employers, in relation to occupational exposure; (c) Radiological medical practitioners, in relation to medical exposure; (d) Those persons or organizations designated to deal with emergency exposure situations or existing exposure situations.”
6GSR Part 3  allows for exemption without further consideration provided that either the derived values of total activity or the derived values of activity concentration are complied with; it is not required to comply with both.
7The categorization system for radioactive sources is based on the concept of ‘dangerous sources’, which are quantified in terms of D values. The D value is the radionuclide specific activity of a source which, if not under control, could cause severe deterministic effects for a range of scenarios that include both external exposure from an unshielded source and internal exposure following dispersal (e.g. by fire, explosion or human action) of the source material. Since the activity of radioactive material in sources varies over many orders of magnitude, D values are used to normalize the range of activity in order to provide a reference for comparing risks.Principal Specifications
1‘Shall’ and ‘should’ statements in this annex are adapted and reproduced from Ref. [IV–1]. They are not requirements and recommendations of the IAEA safety standards.Principal Considerations
1‘Shall’ statements in this annex are adapted and reproduced from Refs [VI–1 and VI–2]. They are not requirements of the IAEA safety standards.Radiation Factors Associated with Thoriated Tungsten Electrode Welding
1The respirable aerosol fraction (or alveolar fraction) is the subfraction of the inhaled particles (diameter <10 μm) that penetrate into the alveolar region of the lung (including the respiratory bronchioles and the alveolar ducts and sacs) and is pertinent to the development of such chronic diseases as pneumoconiosis and emphysema [VII–4].
2As stated in the IAEA Safety Glossary [VII–5], the AMAD is “The value of aerodynamic diameter such that 50% of the airborne activity in a specified aerosol is associated with particles smaller than the AMAD, and 50% of the activity is associated with particles larger than the AMAD” and “The aerodynamic diameter of an airborne particle is the diameter that a sphere of unit density would need to have in order to have the same terminal velocity when settling in air as the particle of interest.”Radiation Doses
1The report calculates the individual annual dose equivalent as 50 mrem (corresponding to 0.5 mSv), on the assumption that the gemstone is worn for 8 h/d for 365 d of the year and that the area of skin exposed is 10 cm2 [VIII–12, VIII–14].Current Policy
1FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION, OECD NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY, PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. 115, IAEA, Vienna (1996).Paragraph 2.22 states that:“ Except for justified practices involving medical exposures, the following practices are deemed to be not justified whenever they would result in an increase, by deliberate addition of radioactive substances or by activation, in the activity of the associated commodities or products: (a) practices involving food, beverages, cosmetics or any other commodity or product intended for ingestion, inhalation or percutaneous intake by, or application to, a human being; and (b) practices involving the frivolous use of radiation or radioactive substances in commodities or products such as toys and personal jewellery or adornments.”
2Article 64 of the Royal Decree of July 20, 2001 lays down the general regulation for the protection of the population, workers and the environment against the hazards of ionizing radiation.Practical Arrangements
1Referred to in the gemstone sector as ‘deep boiling’. It is conducted using a mixture of strong acids or bases in which the gemstones are ‘cooked’ at several hundred degrees Celsius.
Tags applicable to this publication
- Publication type:Specific Safety Guide
- Publication number: SSG-36
- Publication year: 2016